Textile clothing trade: When a non-breaking export laws reasonableness check
 
   Because our country is rich in natural endowments, strong industrial supporting capacity and a huge number of skilled sewing workers, garment exports have been in possession of a large share of China's textile exports in 2012, China's garment exports 159.14 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for the entire industry exports 62%.

   In recent years, China's clothing exports face a very serious challenge, called the internal and external problems. External markets due to the financial crisis has been greatly affected, remains in the doldrums; significant increase domestic production factor costs, comparative advantage weakened, garment export enterprises struggling. Before September 2012, garment exports had an unprecedented 13 consecutive months of negative growth, began a slow recovery until after September.

   In order to promote exports, the Chinese government has adopted a series of policies and measures, including the fourth quarter of last year to waive the statutory inspection and quarantine inspection and quarantine fees goods. But quite puzzling is that we would rather cancel a quarter of inspection and quarantine fees, and this year received Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine reduced fee according to the value of 0.8 ‰, but not to pay attention to this cost in the end that should not close? Even The existing statutory inspection regime rationality and legality what? such legal export product quality inspection in the end can play what role? really as bad as authorities said the quality of Chinese exports is to ensure that products do?

The author attempts to analyze the apparel industry to study this issue.

Garment exports "norm"

   Features international clothing import and export trade is continuity, small, while both parties often have many years of trade links, the quality requirements of the buyer and seller have agreed upon and detailed control, inspection, release procedures, once the quality problems, improve claims mechanism, while fostering a mature customers often take several years, so vendors have a strong sense of quality control, regarded companies to survive in the fierce competition, the development of the essential elements and lifeline.

   In garment exports and production process, the two sides agreed on the quality of the transaction and inspection, clearance procedures are clear, detailed and specific provisions.

   The buyer (importer) for quality control: Once the trade relations between buyers and sellers, the buyer will provide a complete quality specifications, this specification covers all the customer's quality requirements and standards, suppliers should be strictly in accordance with this specification to supply. Previously, the buyer of the production enterprise product quality, facilities, products and control system to conduct pre-assessment, confirm the seller has the ability to provide the required quality of the product. After the fabric production is complete, the seller want to send bulk fabric customer designated professional testing organization for testing internal indicators, to ensure quality standards. Apparel production stage, the buyer or a third party commissioned by mid-quality products may be tested, then the issue will be raised if the rectification requirements. Prior to shipment of goods, or entrust a third party on behalf of the purchaser of the product tested, the end of the inspection report to make, given release, or reject, or wait for the conclusion.

   The seller (exporter) of quality control: at the end of fabric production, exporters representatives to the fabric factory inspection of fabrics, such testing is the identification of the fabric appearance. After the garment production began, exporters representatives to the manufacturing plant for product quality control, strict quality requirements and quality control specifications supervision. In the production phase, exporters representatives and customer representatives are involved in quality control, but their focus is different.

   If the quality of a dispute occurs, how to deal with the contract are clearly defined, there are a set of mature and sound international and domestic mechanisms to ensure fair and reasonable solution to the problem

Difficult to control the quality of the legal export commodity inspection

   Our apparel products total 1207 tariff, which tariff knitted garments 576, woven garments Tariff No. 631. Included in the statutory export commodity inspection directory has 111 knitted garments, woven garments 325, accounting for 9.7% of China's legal export commodity catalog, accounting for 36.1% of the tariff clothing. But the specific category, the general routine export categories are statutory inspection directory, the directory is not in law review are basically popular varieties. From the look of total garment exports, 60% to 70% of the products are made in the law review directory.

    Such a large proportion of garment exports are included in the law review directory, but product testing whether government action can effectively control product quality? Answer is no.

    First, what is the reason to include law review directory is? Scientific basis for what? If that could go wrong, all the clothes are likely to go wrong, the production process has little to do with why the majority of woven garments included Frederick Law Directory (51.5%), while the inclusion of only a small part of the knitting class (19.3%)? woven products not only because of the high price, big oil, right? more ironic is that the customs tariff number is 621939090 and 6203330099 Woven male jacket, the former is longer than the knee, which is above the knees, long coat free inspection, the inspection will have a short coat. Statutory inspection, an administrative permit government agencies to establish a legally binding, companies are not legally on commodity exports is illegal and can be criminal penalties (such cases have been), and that the statutory inspection to determine the directory should be a very serious things, and must have a good reason to put a product included in the law review directory. The current 4491 kinds of legal export commodity products, 4,422 kinds of legal import commodity products, each of which has enough scientific evidence and legal basis for it? Were not included in the law review and export those products directory is on what grounds it excluded ?

   In recent years, law review catalog is continually expanding. 2005 Frederick Law Directory 6567, while in 2013 it was 8913, eight years, an increase of 35.7%, of which exports directory seized by the 3361 Act to 4491, an increase of 33.6% - is it because of the quality of export products increasingly shrinking? rather than long-term kind of legal export commodity inspection types of legal import, but for what consideration? There is no doubt that this is totally contrary to the law of the real economy and the country's development. From which we can see, only the hand of government power more stretched longer.

   Secondly, the statutory inspection of inspection norms, standards and procedures for the export of clothing can not guarantee the quality for effective monitoring. Inspection department no uniform, transparent garment export quality standards, technical specifications and conformity assessment procedures, arbitrary large, the basic charge is released, few real test, but more often in order to make things difficult for an enterprise to carry out the so-called test. China's garment export world class products in more than 200 countries and regions, the mandatory quality standards and technical standards of each country's requirements are different for each brand, if the quality inspection department of the importing country standard test, only the garment export laws seized on the need collected over 80,000 quality standards of the world, this is obviously impossible. So the actual garment exports, statutory inspection fees on alienation has become an institution, officials means of accumulating wealth, improve the quality of exports has no real meaning.

    According to the author of two garment export production enterprise survey, two companies in 2012 a total of 407 votes in the application inspection, inspection home inspection is only 13 votes, accounting for 3.2%; site inspection sampling method, the number of test items have a lot of randomness , inspection reports are not available to producers, exporters and importers, such as the export product quality control tests meaningless. I know in other industries are also generally the case.

    Third, compare and garment export enterprises statutory inspection own quality control and government departments can be seen, the quality conscious control, quality control companies are stronger than the government sector. Moreover, the quality of export products vital for businesses, but also importers, third party inspection agencies to closely monitor the entire process can not slack off even shoddy, swindling. Commodity sector is only "for the country to quality" as a pointer to export product quality is good or bad in fact, no direct relationship with the vital interests of the inspection department, it is impossible to have power over corporate quality control. Moreover, even if the commodity inspection departments and officials really want to do, there are not enough resources and capacity, as mentioned above even the uniform norms and standards are not, how to do it? Therefore, the export business due to quality problems are even claims bankruptcy uncommon, but never seen any one inspection officials did a good job because of the quality of export products bear any responsibility, even if only on a symbolic significance.

   "Law" clearly provides that companies that they can be resolved, market and industry organizations can be resolved, the government issues can be resolved after the punishment does not establish an administrative license. In the export of China's clothing exports as well as other products, the quality control is obviously corporate affairs, and corporate pressure, motivated, have the ability to do better mechanism than government agencies, government departments Why bother to do statutory inspection ? It is not only a violation of the relevant laws, but also a departure from the positioning functions of our government, not with the basic rationality?

    Have to say that the authorities have repeatedly export product quality problems, the "profiteers" to prevent "a bad mouse droppings a pot of soup" and other statutory inspection of the grounds, which have been a serious departure from a fundamental rule of law and government regulatory principles. Is able to because "everyone is a potential criminal," while everyone in jail to do?

    Extremely absurd that our government spent such a huge human and material resources for the export commodity inspection, foreign importers are almost never agree with China's export inspection certificate (in fact, there is no inspection department inspection certificate specification available), China and Most other countries do not have mutual recognition of the results of the inspection and quarantine protocols, so it is the government or importers importing countries are either its own testing, inspection or entrust a third party certification body. There is such a Chinese government agency for their incredible service and feel some importers heard. In fact, China's commodity inspection agency issued a certificate of inspection, the actual function is just a customs formalities, customs clearance is only valid for the country (the so-called seal clearance), and does not provide. Almost all export companies I surveyed said that if the quality of the dispute, a certificate of inspection bodies simply can not serve as proof of acceptable quality, even in our own companies are not rejected as a basis for other claims because of quality problems.

   So, we can not help asking: our government to provide such a purpose recognized by both supply and demand are not statutory inspection in the end is what?

Export commodity to the burden on enterprises

   The author's research in a number of industries are found not only on the legal export commodity exports products to improve the quality did not play a positive role, but to export a heavy burden on enterprises.

   A medium-sized garment export enterprises author surveys, more than 45 million U.S. dollars in exports in 2012, the inspection fee on more than 40 million, which was abolished statutory inspection fees in the fourth quarter in the case. At present China's garment exports low profit margins, generally 3% down, so projections, inspection fees as high as more than 6% of the corporate profits!

    A bigger problem is, there are more hidden costs. Due to the characteristics of the export trade, shipping period is very important, more than a statutory inspection procedures for export enterprises caused great distress. Enterprises in order to ship on time, had to endure some things difficult and extortion inspection officials, and even had to commercial bribery. Apparel exports growing trend of small-volume, multi-style, fast shipping, affected more, sometimes inspection official who is pumping new, high-priced clothing as a sample test can be eaten almost the shipment of the profit. For small and medium garment enterprises in remote areas, shuttle inspection home inspection, but has become almost unbearable weight.

    The author investigated two garment manufacturers have said that inspection never give them too inspection quality standards, specifications clothes home inspection is done on article on the grid, stains, broken, button rivet is solid, whether packing, carton Mark first class and data are consistent with the class; once a month specified fabric composition and formaldehyde testing laboratories, to do a fabric ingredients, formaldehyde, azo pigments of the full set of testing each year, nor the quality of the report issued by the enterprise. These minimum quality inspection, only exporters, importers, manufacturers of daily affairs, companies have themselves done early, but the fact is, the inspection did not find their own businesses never found quality problems.

   But the cost does not mistaken according to income. Charges are: quality inspection fees, before, now charged at the value by 0.8 ‰ 1.5 ‰, has been regarded as the government "support" export; Other costs about $ 40 per unit (the two departments charged for the inspection, which is called the balance of payments Financial charges part of the two lines); inspection agency fees, every single $ 80, agency fee (herein tricky many, not everyone can open agent; nor is 80 yuan a standard clear surface, The author surveys the maximum a single fee is 1,500 yuan learned, because surely everyone can understand); monthly fabric testing, 515 ~ 1000 yuan; once a year full testing, from 1000 to 1400 yuan.

    So doing, the two companies, three quarters of last year, a fee is more than 70,000 yuan, the family is more than 110,000 yuan. In addition, fares, meals, inspection association membership fees (2,000 yuan / year) and other additional costs. I do not understand is why the government to business services, requires companies to pay transportation costs? Or to send a car to pick. Inspection officer driving the car, but still have a few hundred dollars each collect fares.

    You can clearly see from the statutory inspection garment exports, government agencies such conduct quality inspection is involved in corporate affairs executive power, violating the right to operate independently of enterprises, increasing the burden on enterprises, but also did not provide any control on the quality of export products substantial help, they became our own manufacturing export barriers. Industry enterprises generally reflect the law review has become China's export trade facilitation biggest impediment to a serious constraint to improve the competitiveness of China's clothing exports.

    I do not understand is why the statutory inspection has also widespread and growing, and even become one of the most real power, most government agencies have water? Domestic product quality control, has been a major problem people worried, executives are also highly seriously, people AQSIQ guarantee consumer safety responsibility, but why often remiss cause serious quality problems emerge, but again valuable administrative resources configured on meaningless export laws seized?

    I still have questions, Premier Li Keqiang said at present the various departments of the State Council as well as a number of administrative examination and approval 1700, more than a third of the current government to cancel, then export law review is canceled out in it? AQSIQ can on compliance with central and lower public opinion, the courage to reform his own life, cut their own right, decentralization in the market, to help enterprises, large-scale cancellation unlawful, unreasonable statutory inspection, and administrative resources to focus and move to import Plant and Health Inspection and Quarantine, especially on domestic quality control? If so, then the national misfortune, people misfortune, corporate misfortune!

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